Abstract Title:

In vitro induction of apoptosis vs. necrosis by widely used preservatives: 2-phenoxyethanol, a mixture of isothiazolinones, imidazolidinyl urea and 1,2-pentanediol.

Abstract Source:

Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Feb 1 ;63(3):437-53. PMID: 11853695

Abstract Author(s):

Cecilia Anselmi, Anna Ettorre, Marco Andreassi, Marisanna Centini, Paolo Neri, Anna Di Stefano

Article Affiliation:

Cecilia Anselmi


Preservatives are added to many final products, such as detergents, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and vaccines. We conducted an in vitro investigation of the apoptosis- and necrosis-inducing potential of brief applications (10 min) of four common preservatives: ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, 2-phenoxyethanol (EGPE), imidazolidinyl urea (IMU), a mixture of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMI/MI), and 1,2-pentanediol, a"preservative-non-preservative"best known as pentylene glycol. Using HL60 cells, we monitored the kinetics of cell toxicity with the MTT test and analysed extranuclear end points of apoptosis, i.e. phosphatidylserine exposure and nuclear fragmentation. Preservative treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability. The mode of cell death was dose-dependent: necrosis occurred at high concentrations while apoptosis, shown by DNA laddering, DNA sub-diploid peak and caspase-3 activation, occurred at lower concentrations 0-24hr after exposure to a single dose: CMI/MI induced apoptosis at low concentrations (0.001-0.01%) and necrosis at high concentrations (0.5-0.1%); IMU and EGPE required higher concentrations to induce apoptosis (IMU 0.01-0.1% and EGPE 0.01-0.5%) or necrosis (IMU 0.5-1% and EGPE only at 1%). PG induced apoptosis only at 5%. Externalization of PS, a hallmark of apoptosis, occurred early in HL60 treated with low concentrations of CMI/MI and EGPE and was concomitant with the subdiploid peak in HL60 treated with PG. However, it did not occur in HL60 treated with IMU. In conclusion, at appropriate concentrations, each of the four preservatives modulates the apoptotic machinery by a caspase-dependent mechanism. Thus, apoptosis could be a good parameter to evaluate the cytoxicity of these chemical compounds.

Study Type : In Vitro Study
Additional Links
Anti Therapeutic Actions : Vaccination: All : CK(12676) : AC(1344)
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Apoptotic : CK(203) : AC(83), Necrotic : CK(18) : AC(9)

Print Options

Key Research Topics

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & receive The Dark Side of Wheat Ebook

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

The Dark Side of Wheat

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2023 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.