6-gingerol appears to be a safe and potent chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive compound. - GreenMedInfo Summary
6-Gingerol Mediates its Anti Tumor Activities in Human Oral and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines through Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest.
Phytother Res. 2016 Jan 7. Epub 2016 Jan 7. PMID: 26749462
6-Gingerol, a potent nutraceutical, has been shown to have antitumor activity in different tumors, although its mechanism of action is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated antitumor activities of 6-gingerol on human oral (SCC4, KB) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines with or without wortmannin, rapamycin, and cisplatin. Tumor cell proliferation was observed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H tetrazolium, inner salt assay, cell cycle analysis by propidium iodide labeling and flow cytometry, apoptosis by Annexin-V binding assay, and caspase activity by chemiluminescence assay. 6-Gingerol showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity in all three cell lines. Combinations of 6-gingerol with wortmannin and cisplatin showed additive effects, while with rapamycin, it showed 50% cytotoxicity that was equivalent to IC50 of 6-gingerol alone. Treatment with 6-gingerol resulted in G2-phase arrest in KB and HeLa cells and S-phase arrest in SCC4 cells. 6-Gingerol, wortmannin, and rapamycin treatment showed almost two-fold higher expression of caspase 3 in all cell lines. The results imply that 6-gingerol either alone or in combination with PI-3 K inhibitor and cisplatin may provide better therapeutic effects in oral and cervical carcinoma. Thus, 6-gingerol appears to be a safe and potent chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive compound acting through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in human oral and cervical tumor cells. Copyright© 2016 John Wiley&Sons, Ltd.