Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be caused by vaccination. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Post-vaccination encephalomyelitis: literature review and illustrative case.
J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Dec;15(12):1315-22. Epub 2008 Oct 30. PMID: 18976924
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is usually considered a monophasic disease. ADEM forms one of several categories of primary inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis, optic neuropathy, acute transverse myelitis, and neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease). Post-infectious and post-immunisation encephalomyelitis make up about three-quarters of cases, where the timing of a febrile event is associated with the onset of neurological disease. Post-vaccination ADEM has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccine. We review ADEM with particular emphasis on vaccination as the precipitating factor. We performed a literature search using Medline (1976-2007) with search terms including "ADEM", "acute disseminated encephalomyelitis", "encephalomyelitis", "vaccination", and "immunisation". A patient presenting with bilateral optic neuropathies within 3 weeks of "inactivated" influenza vaccination followed by delayed onset of ADEM 3 months post-vaccination is described.