Immunomodulatory Effects of the Nutraceutical Garlic Derivative Allicin in the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Oct 11 ;19(10). Epub 2018 Oct 11. PMID: 30314265
Abraham Said Arellano Buendía
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is presently the primary cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It has been suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress, in addition to or in concert with the metabolic changes, plays an important role in the maintenance and progression of the disease. Therefore, attenuating or blocking these mechanisms may be a therapeutic target to delay the progression of the disease. Diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), a compound derived from garlic, inhibits free radical formation, increases glutathione synthesis and decreases the levels of proinflammatory molecules in vitro. This research aimed to assess the effect of allicin on oxidative stress and inflammation-induced diabetes. Animals were divided into control and diabetes (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg i.p.), and maintained for 30 days. After 30 days, the group of diabetic animals was subdivided into diabetes and allicin-treated diabetes (16 mg/kg/day oral gavage). The three experimental groups were maintained for another month. We analyzed the status of renal function, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. The untreated diabetic group showed hyperglycemia and increased diuresis, creatinine clearance, proteinuria, glycosuria and urinary excretion of-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), as well as increased oxidative stress and the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκβ) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in plasma and kidney. In contrast, the inhibitor of NFκβ (Iκβ) is decreased in the cortex. It has been demonstrated that the allicin treatment decreases hyperglycemia, polyuria, and NAG excretion. The oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines were also reduced by the allicin treatment. In conclusion, allicin delays the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.