Allicin reduces inflammation by regulating ROS/NLRP3 and autophagy in the context of A. fumigatus infection in mice.
Gene. 2020 Aug 8 ;762:145042. Epub 2020 Aug 8. PMID: 32777529
OBJECTIVES: Inhibitory effect of allicin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity on A. fumigatus and the regulation mechanism of inflammation and autophagy in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: The corresponding concentration of allicin was prepared according to the needs of the experiment. In vitro, 2 ml 5 × 10of fungal spores suspension was added to the 6-well plate per hole, and different final concentrations of allicin (1 μl/ml, 2.5 μl/ml, 5 μl/ml, 10 μl/ml, 20 μl/ml, 30 μl/ml) were added. The fungal spores were stained by fluorescent dye SYTO 9 (green) every day, and the spore germination inhibition was detected by flow cytometry in different PH. RAW264.7 cells were cultured and stimulated by A. fumigatus spores for 3 h, then allicin solution was added. Then some cells were stained with ROS probe (green) and hochest33342 (blue). The effect of allicin on ROS was observed by fluorescence microscope. The other part of cells extracted protein from cell lysate and detected the effect of allicin on inflammatory factors and autophagy by Western-blotting. The green and red spots of RAW264.7 cells stably transfected with GFP-RFP-LC3 were observed by fluorescence microscopy. In vivo, A. fumigatus spore was injected intratracheally into mice, then allicin was injected intravenously at a concentrationof 5 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days. The survival status, pulmonary fungal load and weight of mice was recorded continuously for 30 days and detected the changes of lung by pathological examination and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: In vitro, allicin significantly inhibited the spore germination of A. fumigatus within 24 h in a dose-dependent manner and it had a stable inhibition on the spore germination of A. fumigatus in acidic environment. Cell experiments showed that allicin inhibited intracellular spore germination by inhibiting ROS production, inflammation and autophagy. In the animal experiment, the survival rate and body weight of allicin injection group were higher than that of non injection group, while the spore load of lung was lower than that of non injection group (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results support that allicin reduces inflammation and autophagy resistance to A. fumigatus infection, It also provides a possible treatment for Aspergillus infectious diseases, i.e. early anti-inflammation, antibiotics or drugs that inhibit excessive autophagy.