Allium cepa fraction attenuates STZ-induced dementia. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Allium cepa fraction attenuates STZ-induced dementia via cholinesterase inhibition and amelioration of oxidative stress in mice.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2020 Mar 11 ;31(3). Epub 2020 Mar 11. PMID: 32160161
Background An earlier study demonstrated significant antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of hydromethanol extract (HME) of Allium cepa. The aim of the study was to investigate the component responsible for these activities followed by an in vivo study. Methods In vitro antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of standardized ethylacetate fraction (EAF) of HME were assessed. Bioactivity-guided fractionation showed that, as compared with its subfractions, EAF had most significant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ellman assays. Thus, EAF was further examined using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of Alzheimer's disease in mice. STZ was injected intracerebroventricularly on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg) in mice. EAF was thereafter administered (42, 84, and 168 mg/kg b.w./day p.o.) from days 9 to 22. The Morris water maze test was used to evaluate learning and memory in mice. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the brain homogenates of mice. Additionally, histopathological studies were performed to observe effects in the brain at the cellular level. EAF was standardized based on quercetin and quercetin 4'-O-glucoside content using a validated thin layer chromatography densitometric method. Results STZ produced significant (p<0.05) memory impairment along with oxidative stress and a cholinergic deficit in mice. EAF treatment ameliorated STZ-induced behavioral deficits and biochemical alterations in mice in a significant and dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Our results show that EAF is efficacious in improving memory and learning via AChE inhibition and antioxidant activity in the mice brain. Thus, AC could be explored further to find out a lead candidate for Alzheimer's disease.