Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP(+)-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.
J Toxicol. 2015 ;2015:919058. Epub 2015 Aug 18. PMID: 26357513
In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP(+)-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MPP(+)-induced cell death were evaluated with a cell viability assay, staining for nuclear DNA morphology, flow cytometry for apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2, and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3. Concomitant treatment with alpha-mangostin attenuated the effect of MPP(+) on cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Alpha-mangostin reduced ROS formation induced by MPP(+). Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and expression of p53 were significantly lower in cells cocultured with alpha-mangostin and MPP(+). The cotreated cells showed a significant decrease in activated caspase-3 compared with MPP(+) treatment alone. Our data suggest that cytoprotection of alpha-mangostin against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis may be associated with the reduction of ROS production, modulating the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and suppression of caspase-3 activation.