Alteration of fecal microbiota by fucoxanthin results in prevention of colorectal cancer in AOM/DSS-treated mice.
Carcinogenesis. 2020 Sep 17. Epub 2020 Sep 17. PMID: 32940665
Fucoxanthin (Fx), a marine carotenoid found in edible brown algae, is well known for having anti-cancer properties. The gut microbiota has been demonstrated as a hallmark for colorectal cancer (CRC) progression in both humans and rodents. However, it remains unclear whether the gut microbiota is associated with the anti-cancer effect of Fx. We investigated the chemopreventive potency of Fx and its effect on gut microbiota in a mouse model of inflammation-associated CRC (by azoxymethane [AOM]/ dextran sulfate sodium [DSS] treatment). Fx administration (30 mg/kg body weight) during a 14-week period significantly inhibited the multiplicity of colorectal adenocarcinoma in mice. The number of apoptosis-like cleaved caspase-3 high cells increased significantly in both colonic adenocarcinoma and mucosal crypts. Fx administration significantly suppressedBacteroidlales (f_ui; g_ui) (0.3-fold) and Rikenellaceae (g_ui) (0.6-fold) and increased Lachnospiraceae (g_ui) (2.2-fold), compared with those of control mice. Oral administration of a fecal suspension obtained from Fx-treated mice, aimed to enhance Lachnospiraceae, suppress the number of colorectal adenocarcinomas in AOM/DSS-treated mice with a successful increase in Lachnospiraceae in the gut. Our findings suggested that an alteration in gut microbiota by dietary Fx might be an essential factor in the cancer chemopreventive effect of Fx in AOM/DSS-treated mice.