Abstract Title:

An inflammatory response is essential for the development of adaptive immunity-immunogenicity and immunotoxicity.

Abstract Source:

Vaccine. 2016 11 11 ;34(47):5815-5818. Epub 2016 Oct 13. PMID: 27745952

Abstract Author(s):

Tetsuo Nakayama

Article Affiliation:

Tetsuo Nakayama


The humoral and cellular immune responses of adaptive immunity are induced following immunization with effective vaccines. They induce functional cytokines and chemokines through the binding of vaccine components or adjuvants to innate immune receptors. Alum-adjuvanted vaccines induce local inflammatory nodules at injection sites, and the systemic and local production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, has been reported to occur three hours after vaccinations. Furthermore, G-CSF levels increase at injection sites. Neutrophils initially migrate and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) then develop, which stimulate damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), inducing inflammatory cytokines production. Approximately 10-15% of recipients of simultaneous immunizations with multiple vaccines develop febrile reactions, and have higher G-CSF levels. Innate immune responses following vaccinations are discussed herein.

Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Anti Therapeutic Actions : Vaccination: All : CK(6351) : AC(0)

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