Ameliorative Effect of Aspalathin and Nothofagin from Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on HMGB1-Induced Septic Responses In Vitro and In Vivo.
Am J Chin Med. 2015 ;43(5):991-1012. Epub 2015 Jul 30. PMID: 26224030
The ubiquitous nuclear protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is released by activated macrophages and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and functions as a late mediator of experimental sepsis. Aspalathin (Asp) and nothofagin (Not), which have been reported to have anti-oxidant activity, are the two major active dihydrochalcones found in green rooibos. In this study, we investigated the antiseptic effects and underlying mechanisms of Asp and Not against HMGB1-mediated septic responses in HUVECs and mice. The anti-inflammatory activities of Asp and Not were determined by measuring permeability, monocyte adhesion and migration, and activation of proinflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs and mice. According to the results, Asp and Not effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of HMGB1, and suppressed HMGB1-mediated septic responses, such as hyperpermeability, adhesion and migration of leukocytes, and expression of cell adhesion molecules. In addition, Asp and Not suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by HMGB1. Collectively, these results indicate that Asp and Not could be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via the inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.