Annurca apple polyphenol extract promotes mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and inhibits migration in triple-negative breast cancer cells through ROS/JNK signaling.
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 28 ;10(1):15921. Epub 2020 Sep 28. PMID: 32985606
Daniela Cristina Vuoso
Aberrant activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition has been shown to correlate with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) progression and metastasis. Thus, the induction of the reverse process might offer promising opportunities to restrain TNBC metastatic spreading and related mortality. Recently, the Annurca apple polyphenol extract (APE) has been highlighted as a multi-faceted agent that selectively kills TNBC cells by ROS generation and sustained JNK activation. Here, by qualitatively and quantitatively monitoring the real-time movements of live cells we provided the first evidence that APE inhibited the migration of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 TNBC cells and downregulated metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9. In MDA-MB-231 cells APE decreased SMAD-2/3 and p-SMAD-2/3 levels, increased E-cadherin/N-cadherin protein ratio, induced the switch from N-cadherin to E-cadherin expression and greatly reduced vimentin levels. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy imaging of APE-treated MDA-MB-231 cells evidenced a significant cytoskeletal vimentin and filamentous actin reorganization and revealed considerable changes in cell morphology highlighting an evident transition from the mesenchymal to epithelial phenotype with decreased migratory features. Notably, all these events were reverted by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and JNK inhibitor SP600125 furnishing evidence that APE exerted its effects through the activation of ROS/JNK signaling. The overall data highlighted APE as a potential preventing agent for TNBC metastasis.