Anti-inflammatory effect of glycyrrhizin with Equisetum arvense extract. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Anti-inflammatory effect of glycyrrhizin with Equisetum arvense extract.
Odontology. 2021 Apr ;109(2):464-473. Epub 2020 Nov 3. PMID: 33141307
Periodontal disease is the most prevalent infectious disease, and inflammatory mediators play critical roles in its progression. Therefore, controlling pro-inflammatory cytokine production, especially at initial disease stages, is essential to maintaining gingival and periodontal health. Glycyrrhizin (GL) has an anti-inflammatory effect and has been added to toothpaste and mouth rinse to prevent periodontal disease. However, there is a maximum dose for the use of GL. The aim of the present study is to screen plant extracts which can effectively enhance the effects of GL. The effects of extracts from six different plants on GL-suppressed TNF-α expression in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.)-LPS-stimulated human oral keratinocytes (RT7) were examined. Results demonstrated that Equisetum arvense (EA) extract had the strongest additive effect on the suppression of TNF-α by GL at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, GL downregulated the production of TNF-α by suppressing NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, but not JNK or p38 phosphorylation. In contrast, EA decreased JNK phosphorylation but not NF-κB p65 or p38 phosphorylation. The combination of GL and EA effectively attenuated A.a.-LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 and JNK. Furthermore, an LPS-induced periodontitis rat model showed that GL with EA supplementation significantly downregulated TNF-α mRNA in the gingival tissue. These results indicate that EA can suppress A.a.-LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by inhibiting JNK activation and can promote the anti-inflammatory effects of GL. Our findings suggest that a combination of GL and EA may improve the development of new oral hygiene products aimed at enhancing periodontal health.