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Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rhamnetin on Bradykinin-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression and Cell Migration in Rat Brain Astrocytes.

Abstract Source:

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 6 ;23(2). Epub 2022 Jan 6. PMID: 35054789

Abstract Author(s):

Chien-Chung Yang, Li-Der Hsiao, Ya-Fang Shih, Zih-Yao Yu, Chuen-Mao Yang

Article Affiliation:

Chien-Chung Yang

Abstract:

Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression and participate in neuroinflammation. The BK/MMP-9 axis can be a target for managing neuroinflammation. Our previous reports have indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity is involved in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). Rhamnetin (RNT), a flavonoid compound, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we proposed RNT could attenuate BK-induced response in RBA-1. This study aims to approach mechanisms underlying RNT regulating BK-stimulated MMP-9 expression, especially ROS and NF-κB. We used pharmacological inhibitors and siRNAs to dissect molecular mechanisms. Western blotting and gelatin zymography were used to evaluate protein and MMP-9 expression. Real-time PCR was used for gene expression. Wound healing assay was applied for cell migration. 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) were used for ROS generation and NOX activity, respectively. Promoter luciferase assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were applied to detect gene transcription. Our results showed that RNT inhibits BK-induced MMP-9 protein and mRNA expression, promoter activity, and cell migration in RBA-1 cells. Besides, the levels of phospho-PKCδ, NOX activity, ROS, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-p65, and NF-κB p65 binding to MMP-9 promoter were attenuated by RNT. In summary, RNT attenuates BK-enhanced MMP-9 upregulation through inhibiting PKCδ/NOX/ROS/ERK1/2-dependent NF-κB activity in RBA-1.

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