Anticancer and apoptotic effects on cell proliferation of diosgenin isolated from Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Sep 2 ;15:301. Epub 2015 Sep 2. PMID: 26329920
BACKGROUND: Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid saponin found abundantly in C. speciosus, is a well-known precursor of various synthetic steroidal drugs that are extensively used in the pharmaceutical industry.
METHODS: The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anticancer and apoptotic effects on cell proliferation of diosgenin isolated from C. speciosus (Koen.) Sm.
RESULTS: The results indicated that the treatment of HepG2 cells with the sample resulted in a cytotoxic effect as concluded from the IC50 value 32.62μg/ml, while the treatment of HepG2 cells with paclitaxel, a known anti-cancer drug, resulted in an IC50 value of 0.48 μg/ml. The treatment of MCF-7 cells with the tested sample resulted in high inhibition in the cell viability, and resulted in an IC50 value of 11.03 μg/ml, while the treatment ofMCF-7 cells with paclitaxel resulted in an IC50 value of 0.61 μg/ml. The levels of DR4 and caspase-3 were significantly increased (P<0.01) in MCF-7 cells treated with the tested sample compared to untreated cells and possessed a similar activity of paclitaxel in DR4 induction but lower induction in caspase-3. On the other hand the treatment of macrophages or lymphocytes with diosgenin (250μg/ml) resulted in an induction in the cell proliferation up to 3.2-fold and 2.1-fold of control, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The results presented here may suggest that diosgenin isolated from C. speciosus possess anticancer and apoptotic effects on cell proliferation, and therefore, can be used as pharmaceuticals drugs.