Antiproliferative and antimicrobial efficacy of the compounds isolated from the roots of Oenothera biennis L.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2017 Sep ;69(9):1230-1243. Epub 2017 May 29. PMID: 28555835
BACKGROUND: Oenothera biennis L., commonly known as evening primrose, harbours the flavonoids, steroids, tannins, fatty acids and terpenoids responsible for a diverse range of biological activity, such as antitumour, anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition to the previous reports from aerial parts of this plant, studies related to antiproliferative or antimicrobial activity from the roots are warranted.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity of compounds/mixture (1-8) isolated and characterized from the roots of O. biennis L. A possible mechanism of antiproliferative activity was also studied by targeting ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cathepsin D (CATD).
STUDY DESIGN: Antiproliferative efficacy of the compounds/mixture was examined in selected cancer cell lines along with their probable mechanism of action. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against selected microbes (bacteria and fungi).
METHODS: Antiproliferative potential was evaluated by MTT assay against selected cell lines. The mechanism of action was studied spectrophotometrically by targeting ODC and CATD using both an in-vitro and an in-silico approach. The antimicrobial efficiency was analysed using the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods.
KEY FINDINGS: Oenotheralanosterol B (3) and the mixture of oenotheralanosterol A and oenotheralanosterol B (4) exhibited antiproliferative activity against breast, hepatic, prostate and leukaemia cancer cell lines as well as in mouse macrophages (IC8.35-49.69 μg/ml). Oenotheralanosterol B (3) and the mixture of oenotheralanosterol A and oenotheralanosterol B (4) displayed a strong molecular interaction with succinate dehydrogenase (binding energy -6.23 and -6.84 kcal/mol and Ki 27.03 and 9.6 μm, respectively). Oenotheralanosterol A (1), oenotheralanosterol B (3) and mixture of oenotheralanosterol A and oenotheralanosterol B (4) potently inhibited the ODC activity with ICranging from 4.65 ± 0.35 to 19.06 ± 4.16 μg/ml and also showed a strong interaction with ODC (BE -4.17 to -4.46 kcal/mol). Oenotheralanosterol A (1), cetoleilyl diglucoside (2), oenotheralanosterol B (3), dihydroxyprenylxanthone acetylated (6) and dihydroxyprenylxanthone (7) inhibited CATD activity (IC3.95 ± 0.49 to 24.35 ± 2.89 μg/ml). The in-silico molecular interaction analysis of compounds with CATD revealed the non-specific interaction. A moderate antimicrobial activity was observed against selected microbes with a growth inhibition ranging from 6 to 14 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration between 125 and 500 μg/ml. Oenotheralanosterol B (3) and dihydroxyprenylxanthone acetylated (6) exhibited better antimicrobial activity with an MIC range from 62.50 to 500 μg/ml.
CONCLUSION: Oenotheralanosterol B (3) exhibited stronger antiproliferative and antimicrobial potential with respect to the other compounds tested, whereas oenotheralanosterol A (1) was a potent inhibitor of ODC and CATD. Hence, it is suggested that these in-vitro findings could be studied further in vivo for biological activity, safety evaluation and derivatization to enhance potency and efficacy.