Antiviral mechanism of carvacrol on HSV-2 infectivity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antiviral mechanism of carvacrol on HSV-2 infectivity through inhibition of RIP3-mediated programmed cell necrosis pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system in BSC-1 cells.
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 11 ;20(1):832. Epub 2020 Nov 11. PMID: 33176697
BACKGROUND: Carvacrol, as the major components of aromatic plants used for treating human skin diseases including origanum, Satureja, thymus, and coridothymus species, presented a kind of antiviral activity. To explore the mechanisms of carvacrol against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro.
METHOD: The BSC-1 cells model of HSV infection was established, and from the two aspects of viral replication level and cell death pathway, the antiviral effects of carvacrol on HSV infected cells were also evaluated by plaque assay under the three modes including prevention, treatment, and direct inactivation.
RESULTS: In the three ways, the half-maximal effective concentration (EC) of 2% true carvacrol solution on HSV-2 infected cells were severally 0.43, 0.19 and 0.51 mmol/L, and the corresponding therapeutic index (TI) were 4.02, 9.11 and 3.39, respectively. It's the opposite of the increased levels caused by HSV-2 infection, that both the expressions at the transcription genes and protein levels of virus own replication key factors (including ICP4, ICP27, VP16, gB, and UL30) and cytokines (including RIP3, TNF-α, and MLKL) of infected cells treated with carvacrol were dose-dependently inhibited. Besides, HSV-2 infection can cause the decrease of intracellular protein ubiquitination level, and carvacrol can reverse the ubiquitination decrease level caused by HSV-2 infection.
CONCLUSION: Carvacrol exhibits significant antiviral activity by inhibiting the HSV-2 proliferation process and HSV-2-induced TNF-α increasing levels, decreasing RIP3 and MLKL protein expressions through the intracellular RIP3-mediated programmed cell necrosis pathway. In addition, carvacrol also may exhibit anti-HSV-2 activity by reversing the ubiquitination decrease level caused by HSV-2 infection on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which provides insights into the molecular mechanism.