Antioxidant activity of apple extract protects against rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.
Toxicol Mech Methods. 2015 Jun 10:1-6. Epub 2015 Jun 10. PMID: 26062009
Flávia Andressa Pidone Ribeiro
Several studies have shown that apple (Malus sp.) has many components able to exert chemopreventive activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of apple extract following medium-term oral carcinogenesis assay induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) by means of histopathological analysis and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as CuZnSOD, MnSOD and catalase. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were distributed into five groups, as follows (n = 6 per group): Group 1 - negative control group (non-treated group); Group 2 - received 4NQO during 8 weeks in drinking water and treated with apple extract by gavage between the 1st and 4th weeks daily (initiation phase); Group 3 - received 4NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water and treated withapple extract by gavage between the 5th and 8th weeks daily (promotion phase); Group 4 - received apple extract by gavage for eight consecutive weeks only; and Group 5 - received 4NQO for 8 weeks in drinking water daily. Histopathological analysis revealed that apple extract protect oral lesions induced by 4NQO at initiation or promotion phase. Higher gene expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD enzymes were noticed in groups treated with apple extract as well. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the apple extract is able to modulate medium-term oral carcinogenesis assay as a result of antioxidant activity.