Apple polyphenols induce browning of white adipose tissue. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Apple polyphenols induce browning of white adipose tissue.
J Nutr Biochem. 2019 Nov 23 ;77:108299. Epub 2019 Nov 23. PMID: 31841959
We and others have shown that apple polyphenols decrease adipose tissue mass. To better understand the underlying mechanisms and to expand clinical applicability, we herein examine whether apple polyphenols induce adipose thermogenic adaptations (browning) and prevent diet-induced obesity and related insulin resistance. In mice fed a standard diet, daily apple polyphenol consumption induced thermogenic adaptations in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), based on increases in the expression of brown/beige adipocyte selective genes (Ucp1, Cidea, Tbx1, Cd137) and protein content of uncoupling protein 1 and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. Among the upstream regulatory factors of browning, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) levels were concomitantly up-regulated by apple polyphenols. In the primary cell culture experiment, the results did not support a direct action of apple polyphenols on beige adipogenesis. Instead, apple polyphenols increased tyrosine hydroxylase (a rate-limiting enzyme of catecholaminesynthesis) in iWAT, which activates the adipocyte thermogenic program possibly via intratissue cellular communications. In high-fat fed mice, apple polyphenols induced beige adipocyte development in iWAT, reduced fat accumulation, and increased glucose disposal rates in the glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Taken together, dietary administration of apple polyphenols induced beige adipocyte development in iWAT possibly via activation/induction of the peripheral catecholamine synthesis-FGF21-PGC-1α cascade. Results from diet-induced obese mice indicate that apple polyphenols have therapeutic potential for obesity and related metabolic disorders.