Beneficial Effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Status in the Kidneys of Type 1 Diabetic Rats.
Indian J Clin Biochem. 2017 Jul ;32(3):329-336. Epub 2016 Oct 12. PMID: 28811693
One of the most important complications of diabetes is nephropathy. This study investigates the effects of aqueous garlic extract on inflammation and oxidative stress status in the kidneys of diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into four groups- control rats, diabetic rats, garlic extract-treated diabetic rats, garlic extract-treated normal rats. The glucose, urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels were measured in sera using colorimetric methods. To determine the oxidative stress condition in the kidney tissues, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured using colorimetric methods. Inflammation status was evaluated by the determination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene and protein expression using qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively, while nitric oxide (NO) level in these tissues was measured using the Griess method. Histological examination of Kidneys was carried out by H&E staining. The levels of glucose, urea, and uric acid were found to increase in the serum of diabetic rats and decrease in that of diabetic rats after treatment with garlic. Measurement of MDA, TOS, and TAC revealed oxidative stress in diabetic rats, which improved after receiving the extract. The NO and TNF-α protein levels in diabetic rats were higher than those in control rats. After treatment with garlic, the levels of TNF-α protein and NO became close to the normal levels. Histological results confirmed certain other data as well. Garlic has antioxidant properties; therefore, it can reduce oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Reduction in oxidative stress has beneficial effects on inflammation because it leads to a decrease in the level of TNF-α.