Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Anthocyanin-Rich Water-Soluble Aronia Dry Extracts.
Molecules. 2020 Sep 4 ;25(18). Epub 2020 Sep 4. PMID: 32899830
Aronia fruits contain many valuable components that are beneficial to human health. However, fruits are characterized by significant variations in chemical composition dependent on the growing conditions and harvesting period. Therefore, there is a need to formulate the extracts with a precisely defined content of health-promoting substances. Aronia dry extracts (ADE) were prepared from frozen pomace applying water extraction, followed by purification and spray-drying. Subsequently, the content of anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and polyphenols was determined. The high-quality chokeberry pomace enabled obtaining extracts with anthocyanin content much higher than the typical market standards. Moreover, it was found that the antioxidant capacity of aronia extracts exceeded those found in other fruit preparations. Antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties were evaluated using a 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (DPPH-EPR) test and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the level of inflammatory markers have been also investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264 cells. It was revealed that ADE standardized to 25% of anthocyanins depresses the level of markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation (Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) in in vitro conditions. Additionally, it was confirmed that ADE at all analyzed concentrations did not show any cytotoxic effect as demonstrated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.