Artichoke positively modulates endothelial function in hypercholesterolemia. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Artichoke juice improves endothelial function in hyperlipemia.
Life Sci. 2004 Dec 31;76(7):775-82. PMID: 15581909
Artichoke extracts have been shown to produce various pharmacological effects, such as the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and of LDL oxidation. Endothelial dysfunction represents the first stage of atherosclerotic disease; it is usually evaluated in humans by a noninvasive ultrasound method as brachial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV) and by the determination of several humoral markers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with artichoke juice on brachial FMV of hyperlipemics. We studied 18 moderately hyperlipemic patients (LDL cholesterol > 130 <200 mg/dl and/or triglycerides >150 <250 mg/dl) of both genders and 10 hyperlipemic patients, matched for age, sex and lipid parameters. All subjects were under isocaloric hypolipidic diet. A basal determination of serum lipids, soluble VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin and brachial FMV was performed. Thereafter patients were given 20 ml/die of frozen artichoke juice. The same parameters were repeated after 6 weeks. After artichoke treatment there was an increase of triglycerides (156 +/- 54 vs 165 +/- 76 mg/dL, p <0.05) and a reduction of total cholesterol (261 +/- 37 vs 244 +/- 38 mg/dL, p <0.05) and LDL cholesterol (174 +/- 31 vs 160 +/- 34 mg/dL, p <0.05). Controls showed a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol (respectively: 267 +/- 22 vs 249 +/- 20 mg/dL and 180 +/- 24 vs 164 +/- 23 mg/dL, both p <0.001). After artichoke there was a decrease in VCAM-1(1633 +/- 1293 vs 1139 +/- 883 ng/mL, p <0.05) and ICAM-1(477 +/- 123 vs 397 +/- 102 ng/mL, p <0.05), brachial FMV increased (3.3 +/- 2.7 vs 4.5 +/- 2.4%, p <0.01), while controls did not exhibit significant changes in VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin and brachial FMV. Univariate analysis showed that, in artichoke patients, changes of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were significantly related to changes in brachial FMV (respectively: r=-0.66 and r=-0.62; both p <0.05). In conclusion, artichoke dietary supplementation seems to positively modulate endothelial function in hypercholesterolemia.