Abstract Title:

Association of ambient air pollution with risk of hemorrhagic stroke: A time-stratified case crossover analysis of the Singapore stroke registry.

Abstract Source:

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2021 Dec 30 ;240:113908. Epub 2021 Dec 30. PMID: 34974273

Abstract Author(s):

Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Mervyn Jun Rui Lim, Huili Zheng, Aloysius Sheng-Ting Leow, Benjamin Yong-Qiang Tan, Pin Pin Pek, Yogeswari Raju, Wei-Jie Seow, Tseng Tsai Yeo, Vijay K Sharma, Joel Aik, Marcus Eng Hock Ong

Article Affiliation:

Andrew Fu Wah Ho


BACKGROUND: Haemorrhagic stroke (HS) is a major cause of mortality and disability. Previous studies reported inconsistent associations between ambient air pollutants and HS risk.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between air pollutant exposure and the risk of HS in a cosmopolitan city in the tropics.

METHODS: We performed a nationwide, population-based, time-stratified case-crossover analysis on all HS cases reported to the Singapore Stroke Registry from 2009 to 2018 (n = 12,636). We estimated the risk of HS across tertiles of air pollutant concentrations in conditional Poisson models, adjusting for meteorological confounders. We stratified our analysis by age, atrial fibrillation and smoking status, and investigated the lagged effects of each pollutant on the risk of HS up to 5 days.

RESULTS: All 12,636 episodes of HS were included. The median (1st-to 3rd-quartile) daily pollutant levels from 22 remote stations deployed across the island were as follows: (PM = 15.9 (12.7-20.5), PM = 27.3 (22.7-33.4), O = 22.5 (17.3-29.8), NO = 23.3 (18.8-28.4), SO = 10.2 (5.6-14.4), CO = 0.5 (0.5-0.6). The median (1st-to 3rd-quartile) temperature (°C) was 27.9 (27.1-28.7), that of relative humidity (%) was 79.4 (75.6-83.2), and that of total rainfall (mm) was 0.0 (0.0-4.2). Higher levels of CO were significantly associated with an increased risk of HS (3rd tertile vs 1st tertile: Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.12). The increased risk of HS due to CO persisted for at least 5 days after exposure. Individuals under 65 years old and non-smokers had a higher risk of HS when exposed to CO. Owas associated with increased risk of HS up to 5 days (3rd tertile vs 1st tertile: IRR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02-1.12; IRR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02-1.13).

CONCLUSION: Short-term exposure to ambient CO levels was associated with an increased risk of HS. A reduction in CO emissions may reduce the burden of HS in the population.

Study Type : Human Study

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Sayer Ji
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