Association of Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption with Prediabetes and Glucose Metabolism Markers in Hispanic/Latino Adults in the United States: Results from HCHS/SOL.
J Nutr. 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24. PMID: 34558625
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is high in the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States. The associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and 100% fruit juice with prediabetes and glucose metabolism markers in the diverse Hispanic/Latino population in the US are unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the cross-sectional associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and 100% fruit juice with prediabetes and glucose metabolism markers such as fasting glucose and insulin, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose, HOMA index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA index forβ-cell function (HOMA-B), and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) among US Hispanic/Latino adults.
METHODS: Using baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL; 2008-2011), beverage consumption was ascertained using two 24-hour dietary recalls and the Food Propensity Questionnaire. Diabetes/prediabetes status was defined by self-report, antihyperglycemic medication use, and American Diabetes Association laboratory criteria. Among 9965 individuals without diabetes (5194 normoglycemia, 4771 prediabetes) aged 18-74 years, the associations of beverage consumption with prediabetes and glucose metabolism markers were analyzed using logistic and linear regressions, respectively, accounting for complex survey design.
RESULTS: Compared with individuals who consumed < 1 serving/day (<240 mL/day) of sugar-sweetened beverages, individuals who consumed > 2 servings/day (>480 mL/day) had 1.3 times greater odds of having prediabetes (95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.61) and higher glucose metabolism markers including fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. Consumption of artificially sweetened beverages showed an inverse association with β-cell function(HOMA-B). 100% fruit juice intake was not significantly associated with prediabetes nor with glucose metabolism markers.
CONCLUSIONS: Among US Hispanic/Latino adults, higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with an increased odds of prediabetes and higher glucose metabolism markers. Public health initiatives to decrease sugar-sweetened beverage consumption could potentially reduce the burden of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos in the US.