Associations between Source-Specific Particulate Matter and Respiratory Infections in New York State Adults.
Environ Sci Technol. 2020 Jan 21 ;54(2):975-984. Epub 2019 Dec 18. PMID: 31755707
Daniel P Croft
The response of respiratory infections to source-specific particulate matter (PM) is an area of active research. Using source-specific PMconcentrations at six urban sites in New York State, a case-crossover design, and conditional logistic regression, we examined the association between source-specific PM and the rate of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for influenza or culture-negative pneumonia from 2005 to 2016. There were at most= 14 764 influenza hospitalizations,= 57 522 influenza ED visits,= 274 226 culture-negative pneumonia hospitalizations, and= 113 997 culture-negative pneumonia ED visits included in our analyses. We separately estimated the rate of respiratory infection associated with increased concentrations of source-specific PM, including secondary sulfate (SS), secondary nitrate (SN), biomass burning (BB), pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP), road dust (RD), residual oil (RO), diesel (DIE), and spark ignition vehicle emissions (GAS). Increased rates of ED visits for influenza were associated with interquartile range increases in concentrations of GAS (excess rate [ER] = 9.2%; 95% CI: 4.3%, 14.3%) and DIE (ER = 3.9%; 95% CI: 1.1%, 6.8%) for lag days 0-3. There were similar associations between BB, SS, OP, and RO, and ED visits or hospitalizations for influenza, but not culture-negative pneumonia hospitalizations or ED visits. Short-term increases in PMfrom traffic and other combustion sources appear to be a potential risk factor for increased rates of influenza hospitalizations and ED visits.