The effects of astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid-acylated astaxanthin on Alzheimer's disease in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice.
J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25. PMID: 29695154
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with the characteristics of senile plaques, neuro-inflammation, neurofibrillary tangles and destruction of synapse structure stability. Previous studies have verified the protective effects of astaxanthin (AST). However, whether synthesized docosahexaenoic acid-acylated AST diesters (AST-DHA) could delay AD pathogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, APP/PSEN1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice were administrated with AST and AST-DHA for 2 months. The results of radial 8-arm maze and Morris water maze tests showed that AST-DHA exerted more significant effects than AST in enhancing learning and memory levels of APP/PS1 mice. Further mechanical studies suggested that AST-DHA was superior to AST in regulating the parameters of oxidative stress, reducing Tau hyper-phosphorylation, suppressing neuro-inflammation and regulating inflammasome expression and activation in APP/PS1 mice. The findings suggested AST-DHA attenuated cognitive disorders by reducing pathological features in APP/PS1 mice, suggesting AST-DHA might be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease.