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Abstract Title:

Astaxanthin and its gold nanoparticles mitigate cadmium toxicity in rice by inhibiting cadmium translocation and uptake.

Abstract Source:

Sci Total Environ. 2021 May 3 ;786:147496. Epub 2021 May 3. PMID: 33984703

Abstract Author(s):

Shang Dai, Binqiang Wang, Yue Song, Zhenming Xie, Chao Li, Shan Li, Yan Huang, Meng Jiang

Article Affiliation:

Shang Dai

Abstract:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the main heavy metal in rice, Cd uptake by cereal crops from soil leads to toxicity in plants and pose serious health risks due to human body's accumulation through the food chain. Astaxanthin, a natural and anti-oxidative oxycarotenoid, is widely distributed in various microorganisms and seafood. In this study, we demonstrated that astaxanthin in the form of gold nanoparticles (Ast-AuNPs) can efficiently alleviate Cd toxicity to a greater extent in hydroponically grown rice plants than single astaxanthin. When supplemented with 100μg/mL Ast-AuNPs in medium, the Cd level of rice was significantly reduced by 26.2% (in roots) and 85.9% (in leaves), respectively. We also found Ast-AuNPs supplement restores chlorophyll biosynthesis and mitigate Cd-induced oxidative stresses: the contents of superoxide anion (O), hydrogen peroxide (HO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly reduced while the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) was significantly elevated. Further study showed that the supplement of Ast-AuNPs inhibited Cd-induced gene expression of the metal transporter genes (OsHMA2, OsHMA3, OsIRT1, OsIRT2, OsNramp1, and OsNramp5) in rice roots. Moreover, Ast-AuNPs regulated the metabolism of free amino acids and increased the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione and ascorbic acid. Therefore, this study demonstrates that Ast-AuNPs could mitigate the Cd toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Cd uptake, scavenging of ROS, and enhancing the activity of antioxidants, and also expands the application of functional gold nanoparticles in the alleviation of heavy metal pollution in plants.

Study Type : Plant Study

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