Effects of estradiol, benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-3 on the expression pattern of the estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta, the estrogen receptor-related receptor 1 (ERR1) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in adult ovariectomized rats.
Toxicology. 2004 Dec 1;205(1-2):123-30. PMID: 15458797
Department of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, University of Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, D-37099 Goettingen, Germany.
The estrogen receptors (ERs) are members of a super family of ligand-activated transcription factors mediating estrogenic responses. A close functional kinship was found for the structurally related estrogen receptor-related receptor1 (ERR1), a constitutively active transcription factor. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the toxic and estrogenic effects of a wide variety of environmental contaminants and industrial pollutants. Both the ERR1 and the AhR are known to modulate the ER's signalling pathways in multiple ways. Organic chemicals with a certain structural relationship to steroid hormones often induce a tissue- or cell-specific variety of responses distinct from estrogenic responses and this may involve ERR1 and AhR. The UV-screens benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-3 (BP2, BP3), structurally related to known steroid receptor ligands, are used in cosmetics and plastics to improve product stability and durability. Both BP2 and BP3 were shown to exert uterotrophic effects and BP2 was shown to bind to the estrogen receptors. Whether such effects are also exerted in other organs is unknown. Therefore, an approach to a multi-organic risk assessment for these substances was made by measuring the gene-expression of the four mentioned receptors in the pituitary, the uterus and the thyroid after a five-day treatment in comparison to estradiol. Though BP2 seems to exert an estrogen-like effect while BP3 does not, there are regulatory effects on receptor expression for both substances that indicate a kind of endocrine disruption that is not assessed by "classical" estrogenic markers.