Betulinic acid induces ROS-dependent apoptosis and S-Phase arrest in human multiple myeloma. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Betulinic Acid Induces ROS-Dependent Apoptosis and S-Phase Arrest by Inhibiting the NF-B Pathway in Human Multiple Myeloma.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 ;2019:5083158. Epub 2019 Jun 9. PMID: 31281581
Betulinic acid (BA), as a prospective natural compound, shows outstanding antitumor bioactivities against many solid malignancies. However, its mechanism against multiple myeloma (MM) remains elusive. Herein, for the first time, we studied the antitumor activity of BA against MM bothand. We showed that BA mediated cytotoxicity in MM cells through apoptosis, S-phase arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, and overwhelming reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Moreover, when the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) effectively abated elevated ROS, the BA-induced apoptosis was partially reversed. Our results revealed that BA-mediated ROS overproduction played a pivotal role in anticancer activity. Molecularly, we found that BA resulted in marked inhibition of the aberrantly activated NF-B pathway in MM. As demonstrated by using the NF-B pathway-specific activator TNF-and the inhibitor BAY 11-7082, BA-mediated inhibition of the NF-B pathway directly promoted the overproduction of ROS and, ultimately, cell death. Furthermore, BA also exerted enormous tumor-inhibitory effects via repressing proliferation and inhibiting the NF-B pathway in our xenograft model. Overall, by blocking the NF-B pathway that breaks redox homeostasis, BA, as a potent NF-B inhibitor, is a promising therapeutic alternative for MM.