Biological Activities of Lactose-Based Prebiotics and Symbiosis with Probiotics on Controlling Osteoporosis, Blood-Lipid and Glucose Levels.
Medicina (Kaunas). 2018 Dec 3 ;54(6). Epub 2018 Dec 3. PMID: 30513975
Lactose-based prebiotics are synthesized by enzymatic- or microbial- biotransformation of lactose and have unique functional values. In this comprehensive review article, the biochemical mechanisms of controlling osteoporosis, blood-lipid, and glucose levels by lactose-based prebiotics and symbiosis with probiotics are reported along with the results of clinical investigations. Interaction between lactose-based prebiotics and probiotics reduces osteoporosis by (a) transforming insoluble inorganic salts to soluble and increasing their absorption to gut wall; (b) maintaining and protecting mineral absorption surface in the intestine; (c) increasing the expression of calcium-binding proteins in the gut wall; (d) remodeling osteoclasts and osteoblasts formation; (e) releasing bone modulating factors; and (f) degrading mineral complexing phytic acid. Lactose-based prebiotics with probiotics control lipid level in the bloodstream and tissue by (a) suppressing the expressions of lipogenic- genes and enzymes; (b) oxidizing fatty acids in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue; (c) binding cholesterol with cell membrane of probiotics and subsequent assimilation by probiotics; (d) enzymatic-transformations of bile acids; and (e) converting cholesterol to coprostanol and its defecation. Symbiosis of lactose-based prebiotics with probiotics affect plasma glucose level by (a) increasing the synthesis of gut hormones plasma peptide-YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2 from entero-endocrine L-cells; (b) altering glucose assimilation and metabolism; (c) suppressing systematic inflammation; (d) reducing oxidative stress; and (e) producing amino acids. Clinical investigations show that lactose-based prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide improves mineral absorption and reduces hyperlipidemia. Another lactose-based prebiotic, lactulose, improves mineral absorption, and reduces hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. It is expected that this review article will be of benefit to food technologists and medical practitioners.