Biostimulating Gut Microbiome with Bilberry Anthocyanin Combo to Enhance Anti-PD-L1 Efficiency against Murine Colon Cancer.
Microorganisms. 2020 Jan 25 ;8(2). Epub 2020 Jan 25. PMID: 31991820
Recent advances have revealed the essential role of gut microbiomes in the therapeutic efficiency of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Inspired by biostimulation, a method using nutrients to accelerate the growth of soil microorganisms and the recovery of soil microbial consortia, here we propose a bilberry anthocyanin combo containing chitosan and low molecular citrus pectin (LCP), in which LCP-chitosan is used to encapsulate anthocyanins so to enhance its digestive stability and, moreover, modulate the microbiome more favorable for the PD-L1 blockade treatment. Using murine MC38 colon cancer as a model system, we examined the effects of the combo on modulating the gut microbiome and therapeutic efficiency of PD-L1 blockade treatment. It was shown that bilberry anthocyanins enriched the subdominant species, increased both the concentration and the proportion of butyrate in feces and enhanced intratumoral CD8T cell infiltrations. The application of the bilberry anthocyanin combo restored the species diversity of gut microbiome decreased by LCP-chitosan and achieved the best control of tumor growth. These preliminary results indicated unprecedented opportunities of probiotics combo in improving the therapeutic efficiency of immune checkpoint inhibitor through manipulating gut microbiome.