Hypocholesterolaemic mechanism of bitter melon aqueous extracts via inhibition of pancreatic cholesterol esterase and reduction of cholesterol micellar solubility.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Feb ;67(1):20-8. Epub 2015 Dec 13. PMID: 26653879
This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effects of bitter melon aqueous extracts (BMAE) in vitro, the inhibitory effects of BMAE on pancreatic cholesterol esterase (CEase) and incorporation of cholesterol into micelles were investigated. BMAE decreased the in vitro micellar solubility of cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. The conformation of CEase was investigated by means of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence. The result revealed the decrease ofα-helix contents, increase of β-sheet and exposure of aromatic amino acid residuals. The incorporation of cholesterol into micelles was inhibited by BMAE. A complex was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which indicated interaction between cholesterol and BMAE. The result revealedthat BMAE can play a role in decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption via inhibition of CEase, and of micelle formation.