Black ginseng has ameliorative effects against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ameliorative Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Action of Black Ginseng (Panax ginseng) on Acetaminophen-Mediated Liver Injury.
Molecules. 2017 Apr 21 ;22(4). Epub 2017 Apr 21. PMID: 28430162
Background: Frequent overdosing of acetaminophen (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of black ginseng (BG) on APAP-induced mice liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms of action were further investigated for the first time. Methods: Mice were treated with BG (300, 600 mg/kg) by oral gavage once a day for seven days. On the 7th day, all mice were treated with 250 mg/kg APAP which caused severe liver injury after 24 h and hepatotoxicity was assessed. Results: Our results showed that pretreatment with BG significantly decreased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) compared with the APAP group. Meanwhile, hepatic antioxidant including glutathione (GSH) was elevated compared with the APAP group. In contrast, a significant decrease of the levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the BG-treated groups compared with the APAP group. These effects were associated with significant increases of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels in liver tissues. Moreover, BG supplementation suppressed activation of apoptotic pathways through increasing Bcl-2 and decreasing Bax protein expression levels according to western blotting analysis. Histopathological examination revealed that BG pretreatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced necrosis and inflammatory infiltration in liver tissues. Biological indicators of nitrative stress like 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) were also inhibited after pretreatment with BG, compared with the APAP group. Conclusions: The results clearly suggest that the underlying molecular mechanisms of action of BG-mediated alleviation of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nitrative effects.