Anti-inflammatory and anti-superbacterial activity of polyphenols isolated from black raspberry.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Feb ;17(1):73-9. Epub 2013 Feb 14. PMID: 23440625
Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea.
The fruit of the black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) has been employed in traditional medicine, and recent studies have demonstrated its measureable biological activities. However, the root of the black raspberry has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of the root and unripe fruit polyphenols of the black raspberry. Both polyphenols proved to have anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by the decreased nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (IL-1β , IL-6, and IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. However, root polyphenols showed stronger anti-inflammatory activity than fruit polyphenols. LPS-induced mRNA and protein expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 levels were also decreased, confirming the anti-inflammatory activity. Root polyphenols showed lethal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), and Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, the black raspberry fruit did not demonstrate these properties. These data provide the first demonstration that black raspberry root has potential anti-inflammatory and anti-superbacterial properties that can be exploited as alternatives for use in the food and cosmetic industries and/or as pharmaceuticals.