Effect of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and its phytochemical sulforaphane in balanced diets on the detoxification enzymes levels of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a carcinogenic and mutagenic pollutant.
Chemosphere. 2009 Mar;74(9):1145-51. Epub 2009 Jan 13. PMID: 19144376
Centro de Investigación Científica y Educación Superior de Ensenada, CICESE, Ensenada BC, Mexico.
Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed with enriched diets containing broccoli and its phytochemical sulforaphane over 30 d. The levels of cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activities were measured. Basal value of cytochrome P450 activity was significantly increased as consequence of the broccoli and sulforaphane enriched diets, while no statistically significant changes were found on catalase and lipid peroxidation activities. After benzo(a)pyrene exposure, the cytochrome P450 activity increased to higher levels in the fish feed with broccoli and sulforaphane when compared with the control fish. Activities of antioxidant enzymes also varied but without significant difference with the control fish. Supported by the lower concentrations of BaP metabolites in bile from fish fed with broccoli or with sulforaphane enriched diets (indicating a better xenobiotic elimination) the cytochrome P450 induction could be considered beneficial for the detoxification because this transformation is the first step for PAH elimination by the phase II system. The protection of aquaculture organism against pollution effects by designing special diets able to modulate the enzymes involved in the phase-I and phase-II detoxification mechanism are discussed.