Butter naturally enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid alters tissue fatty acids and improves the plasma lipoprotein profile in cholesterol-fed hamsters.
J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1934-9. PMID: 16046719
Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
Butter, which is naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (rumenic acid; RA) and vaccenic acid (VA), has been shown to be an effective anticarcinogen in studies with animal models; however, there has been no examination of the effects of a naturally derived source of VA and RA on atherosclerosis-related biomarkers. The current study was designed to determine the effect of a diet containing VA/RA-enriched butter on plasma lipoproteins and tissue fatty acid profiles in cholesterol-fed hamsters. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 20% added fat as: 1) Control, 20% standard butter (CT); 2) 5% standard butter + 15% VA/RA-enriched butter (EB); 3) 15% standard butter + 5% partially-hydrogenated vegetable oil (VO). After 4 wk, plasma lipoproteins were isolated, cholesterol quantified, and tissue fatty acid profiles determined. Tissue concentrations of VA and RA were increased by consumption of the EB diet compared with both the CT and VO diets, whereas the VO diet increased their concentration compared with the CT diet only. Total and LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced in hamsters fed EB and VO compared with CT, whereas VLDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced in hamsters fed EB compared with those fed CT and VO. HDL cholesterol concentrations did not differ among treatments. The ratio of potentially atherogenic lipoproteins [VLDL + intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) + LDL] to antiatherogenic HDL was significantly lower in hamsters fed VA/RA-enriched butter (0.60) than in those fed either control diet (1.70) or the diet containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (1.04). Thus, increasing the VA/RA concentration of butter results in a plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile that is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.