Abstract Title:

Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).

Abstract Source:

Anticancer Res. 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6C):4693-701. PMID: 14981915

Abstract Author(s):

Masatoshi Saito, Hiroshi Sakagami, Seiichiro Fujisawa

Article Affiliation:

Department of Oral Diagnosis, Meikai University School of Dentistry, Saitama 350-0283, Japan.


The cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BMP) and the mixture of BHA and BHT (BHA/BHT) (1:1, molar ratio) were investigated, using human promeylocytic leukemia cell lines (HL-60) and human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) declined in the order of BHA, BHT (0.2-0.3 mM)>BHA/BHT (0.04-0.07 mM)>BMP (0.02-0.05 mM). The addition of antioxidants (N-acetyl-Lcysteine, sodium ascorbate, catalase) reduced the cytotoxicity of BHA/BHT or BMP against HSC-2 cells, but not that of BHA or BHT, whereas the addition of NADH, a quinone reductase to BMP, enhanced the cytotoxicity. These findings suggested that the cytotoxicity of BHA/BHT and BMP might be caused by reactive intermediates. BHA-induced cytotoxicity was enhanced by horseradish peroxidases, suggesting that BHA was oxidizable and produced cytotoxic BHA radicals. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation of HL-60 cells was preferably induced by BHA/BHT and BMP, followed by BHA. The MnSOD mRNA expression in HL-60 cells assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was highly inhibited by BHA/BHT or BMP, accompanied by the change in the electrophoretic mobility of MnSOD on polyacryamide gel. These compounds activated caspase-3, 8 and 9 in HL-60 cells. Activations of caspases, particularly caspase-3, declined in the order of BHA/BHT>BHA>BMP>BHT. The most cytotoxic BMP activated caspase-3 activity to the least extent, possibly in part due to the occurrence of necrosis. The great cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by BHA/BHT may be due to reactive intermediates derived from the interaction between BHA phenoxyl radical and BHT or BHT phenoxyl radical.

Study Type : In Vitro Study

Print Options

Key Research Topics

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get Nature's Evidence-Based Pharmacy

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

500+ pages of Natural Medicine Alternatives and Information.

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2021 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.