Carnosic acid alleviates chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in mice cerebral and ocular tissues.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jan 22. Epub 2020 Jan 22. PMID: 31965510
Abdullah A AlKahtane
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide whose exposure leads to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurotoxicity. The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of carnosic acid (CA) in ameliorating CPF-induced cytotoxicity in mice brain and eye tissues. We allocated 40 male Swiss albino mice to receive DMSO 1% solution, oral CA 60 mg/kg/day bw, CPF 12 mg/kg/day bw via gastric gavage, or CPF plus CA at 30 and 60 mg/kg/day bw. Carnosic acid was administered once/day for 14 days, while CPF was administered in the last 7 days of the experiment. Biochemical analysis showed that CPF administration was associated with significant increases in the serum concentrations of interleukin-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, while it was associated with significant reductions in serum AChE levels in mice. Moreover, CPF-intoxicated mice exhibited significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in the brain and eye tissues. However, they had significantly lower levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in comparison with normal controls. Pretreatment with CA at 30 and 60 mg/kg/day bw for 14 days significantly alleviated all the aforementioned CPF-inducedalterations in a dose-dependent manner; more frequent restorations of the normal control ranges were observed in the higher dose group. In conclusion, CA offers a neuroprotective effect against CPF-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and should be further studied in upcoming experimental and clinical research.