Abstract Title:

Carnosic Acid Improves Outcome after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Abstract Source:

J Neurotrauma. 2019 Jul 1 ;36(13):2147-2152. Epub 2019 Mar 26. PMID: 30672378

Abstract Author(s):

Mark E Maynard, Erica L Underwood, John B Redell, Jing Zhao, Nobuhide Kobori, Kimberly N Hood, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash

Article Affiliation:

Mark E Maynard


In the majority of cases, the cognitive and behavioral impairments resulting from a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) (also referred to as concussion) wane within days to weeks. In contrast, these impairments can persist for months to years after repetitive mild TBI (rmTBI). The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these impairments are not well understood. In the present study, we examined the consequences of rmTBI (three weight drops each separated by 72 h) on brain tissue respiration, pathology, and cognitive performance in mice. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-realted factor 2 (Nrf2) has been demonstrated to enhance the expression of numerous cytoprotective genes. Carnosic acid (CA) has been shown to activate Nrf2 and suppress the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Because contemporaneous activation of cytoprotective genes and inhibition of proinflammatory genes can be beneficial, we questioned whether CA can be used to mitigate the pathobiology of rmTBI. The rmTBI increased hippocampal adenosine triphosphate-linked tissue respiration and proton leak that were unaffected by CA treatment. The rmTBI also caused significant motor and cognitive dysfunction, as tested using the foot fault, Barnes maze, and novel object recognition tasks. These impairments occurred in the absence of visible neuronal or dendritic loss. Post-rmTBI administration of CA significantly improved motor and cognitive function, and decreased Gfap and Iba1 immunoreactivities within white matter tracks. Taken together, these results show that rmTBI can cause cognitive impairments in the absence of overt neuronal pathologies, and post-injury treatment with CA can lessen some of these impairments.

Print Options

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get Nature's Evidence-Based Pharmacy

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

500+ pages of Natural Medicine Alternatives and Information.

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2022 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.