[Dietary exposure assessment of some important Fusarium toxins in cereal-based products in China].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2010 Nov ;39(6):709-14. PMID: 21351637
Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, China CDC, Beijing 100021, China.
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the dietary exposure of Chinese populations to deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN).
METHODS: Ten Fusarium toxins including DON, NIV, ZEN in domestic wheat flour and corn-based products harvested and collected in 2009 were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Dietary intake assessments of human exposure to DON, NIV and ZEN were carried out in combination of national food consumption data with toxin concentration data by deterministic estimate method.
RESULTS: (1) There are 2.5% adults and 10% children with the dietary exposure to DON exceeding the tolerable daily intake (TDI) on the basis of the average food consumption. At the 75th percentile food consumption level, the dietary exposure of populations to DON was higher than its TDI, 1.72 and 2.02 times (adults) as well as 1.19 and 1.09 times higher than TDI (children), respectively, based on the higher DON exposure (adults : P90 for wheat flour and P97. 5 for corn-based products, children: P50 for wheat flour and P75 for corn-based products). At the average toxin concentration, children with the high consumption level (90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile) of either wheat flour or corn-based products, the dietary exposure to DON exceed the TDI, 1.81 to 3.17 times (wheat flour) and 1.47 - 3.97 times (corn-based products) higher than TDI, respectively. The dietary exposure of adults to ZEN exceed the TDI, based on the average food consumption data and higher ZEN level (P99), the 75th consumption data combined with P97. 5th toxin concentration, as well as 90th percentile of both food consumption data and ZEN concentration, respectively. There are 1%, 2.5%, 25%, 25% and 50% populations of children exposed ZEN higher than TDI, respectively at the 50th, 75th, 90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile of food consumption data. (2) The level of concern (LOC) of DON in wheat flour calculated with high consumption data (90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile) for all populations as well as DON and ZEN in corn-based products calculated with high consumption data (adults: 99th percentile, children: 97. 5th and 99th percentile) were lower than their average concentrations in above cereals. (3) No matter adults or children, the maximum daily safe intake of both wheat flour and corn-based products with high concentration of DON (97. 5th and 99th percentile, and 90th else for children) were lower than their own average food consumption data. For adults, the maximum daily safe intake of corn-based products with high ZEN contamination level (99th percentile) was lower than the average amount of corn-based products consumption. While, the maximum daily safe intake of both wheat flour and corn-based products derived from high ZEN concentration (97.5th and 99th percentile) for children were lower than their own average food consumption.
CONCLUSIONS: Children dietary exposure to DON, NIV and ZEN was higher than adults. Children are the populations at the high risk of dietary exposure to these three mycotoxins. The risk to health caused by long-term consumption of wheat flour and corn-based products heavily contaminated with such high concentration of DON and ZEN was relatively high. The present tolerance limit for DON and ZEN in foods implemented in China should be revised on the basis of assessment results.