Chlorogenic acid ameliorates memory loss and hippocampal cell death after transient global ischemia.
Eur J Neurosci. 2019 Aug 22. Epub 2019 Aug 22. PMID: 31437868
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is known to have antioxidant potentials, yet the effect of CGA on brain ischemia has not been sufficiently understood. Brain ischemia such as transient global ischemia disrupts many areas of the brain of rats, including the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups, that is, sham-operated (SO), bilateral common carotid occlusion (BCCO), and BCCO+ 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg bw CGA groups (CGA15, CGA30, and CGA60, respectively). Brain ischemia was induced in Wistar rats with BCCO for 20 min followed by intraperitoneal injection of CGA. The rats were examined for the spatial memory in a Morris water maze test on the 3rd day and were euthanized on the 10th day after BCCO. The total number of pyramidal cells was estimated, and the mRNA expressions of Bcl2, Bax, caspase-3, SOD2, SOD1, GPx, ET-1, eNOS, CD31, and VEGF-A were measured. The BCCO group spent less time and distance in the target quadrant than any other group in the spatial memory retention test. The CA1 pyramidal cell numbers in the BCCO and CGA15 groups were lower than in the CGA30 and CGA60 groups. The mRNA expressions of Bcl2, SOD2, and CD31 in the BCCO group were lower than in the CGA15, CGA30, and CGA60 groups. The ET-1 expression was higher in the BCCO and CGA15 groups than in the SO, CGA30, and CGA60 groups. CGA improves the spatial memory and prevents the CA1 pyramidal cell death after BCCO by increasing Bcl2, SOD2, and CD31 expressions and decreasing ET-1 expression.