Chromium chloride inhibits liver enzymes in laying hens. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Effects of trivalent chromium on hepatic CYP-linked monooxygenases in laying hens.
J Appl Toxicol. 2002 May-Jun;22(3):161-5. PMID: 12015795
Department of Pharmacology, University of Bologna, via Irnerio 48, I-40126 Bologna, Italy. email@example.com
Chromium is an essential nutrient required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids in humans and many animal species. We evaluated whether feeding laying hens with high levels of different chemical forms of trivalent chromium may affect hepatic metabolizing cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-linked enzymes. Modulation of CYP-dependent monooxygenases (which play a pivotal role in the endogenous metabolism) by Cr(III) was tested using either specific substrates as probes of different CYPs or testosterone as a multi-bioprobe. The CYP-supported oxidases were studied in liver microsomes from laying hens fed with diet supplemented with either 25 or 50 ppm chromium chloride as a yeast or as aminoniacinate. Although at 25 ppm no appreciable effects were observed, at 50 ppm a general inactivation of the recorded monooxygenases (ranging from 34% loss for ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase with chromium chloride to 85% loss for O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin with either chromium yeast or aminoniacinate) were achieved in the supplemented groups vs controls. The only exception was the O-dealkylation of pentoxyresorufin, which was significantly boosted by both chromium yeast (up to 65% increase) and chromium aminoniacinate (up to 141%). Measurements of the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of testosterone used as a multi-bioprobe corroborated the inactivating properties of Cr(III) at the higher dose. Taken as a whole, these findings seem to indicate that high levels of Cr(III) supplementation can substantially impair CYP-catalysed drug metabolism in laying hens.