Gamma-oryzanol Prevents LPS-induced Brain Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Adult Mice.
Nutrients. 2019 Mar 29 ;11(4). Epub 2019 Mar 29. PMID: 30934852
BACKGROUND: Rice (L.) is the main food source for more than half of humankind. Rice is rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants with several biological activities; among these compounds, the presence ofγ-oryzanol is noteworthy. The present study aims to explore the effects of γ-oryzanol on cognitive performance in a mouse model of neuroinflammation and cognitive alterations.
METHODS: Mice received 100 mg/kgγ-oryzanol (ORY) or vehicle once daily for 21 consecutive days and were then exposed to an inflammatory stimulus elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A novel object recognition test and mRNA expression of antioxidant and neuroinflammatory markers in the hippocampus were evaluated.
RESULTS: ORY treatment was able to improve cognitive performance during the neuroinflammatory response. Furthermore, phase II antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH-dehydrogenase-quinone-1 (NQO1) were upregulated in the hippocampi of ORY and ORY+LPS mice. Lastly,γ-oryzanol showed a strong anti-inflammatory action by downregulating inflammatory genes after LPS treatment.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that chronic consumption ofγ-oryzanol can revert the LPS-induced cognitive and memory impairments by promoting hippocampal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecular responses.