Chronic Latent Magnesium Deficiency in Obesity Decreases Positive Effects of Vitamin D on Cardiometabolic Risk Indicators.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21. PMID: 28828979
BACKGROUND: Obesity and micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the risk of cardiometabolic diseases such are type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
OBJECTIVE: We examined the frequency of concomitant deficit of magnesium (Mg) and vitamin D in obese patients and evaluated the connection of these combined deficiencies with indicators of cardiometabolic risk in non-diabetic subjects.
METHOD: Non-diabetic middle aged adults (n = 80; mean age 36± 4 years, 52% women) were recruited based on weight/adiposity parameters [i.e. body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (FAT%)]. Cardiometabolic risk indicators [insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score for predicting 10-year CVD)], Mg status [i.e. total serum Mg concentration (TMg), chronic latent Mg deficiency (CLMD) - 0.75-0.85 mmol/L], vitamin D status [i.e. serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), vitamin D deficiency<50 nmol/l] were assessed.
RESULTS: Among obese subjects 36% presented a combination of vitamin D deficiency and CLMD. In all studied patients, 25(OH)D and TMg levels both, individually and combined, showed a negative linear correlation with HOMA-IR and CVD risk. In subjects with CLMD (TMg˂0.85 mmol/L), a negative linear coefficient was found between 25(OH)D and, HOMA-IR and CVD risk, compared with subjects with normal TMg status (TMg ≥0.85 mmol/L).
CONCLUSION: CLMD and vitamin D deficiency may commonly be present in obese non-diabetic subjects. Individually and combined, both deficiencies predispose non-diabetic patients to increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Maintaining normal Mg status may improve the beneficial effects of vitamin D on cardiometabolic risk indicators.