Protective effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne against 1-methyl-4-phenylpridinium ion and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytotoxicity in cellular model of Parkinson's disease.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Apr ;49(4):963-73. Epub 2011 Jan 8. PMID: 21219959
Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. (CI) has been used in Oriental medicine for several centuries. In the present study, the effect of CI extract was evaluated against 1-methyl-4-phenylpridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced damage in SH-SY5Y cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Cell viability, oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species, expression of Bcl-2/Bax, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteolysis were evaluated using SH-SY5Y cells. Production of iNOS, prostaglandin E(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6, expression of cyclooxygenase type-2 (COX-2) and type-1 (COX-1) were examined in activated BV-2 microglia. At 1, 10 and 100 μg, CI inhibited cell loss, decreased the reactive oxygen species production, regulated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inhibited PARP proteolysis in MPP(+)-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, CI suppressed the production of prostaglandin E(2,) expression of cyclooxygenase type-2 (COX-2), blocked IκB-α degradation and activation of NF-κB p65 in BV-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The molecular mechanisms involved by CI might involve its inhibitory actions both on neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammatory NF-κB/IκB-α signaling pathway. The present investigation scientifically supports the long history and safe usage of CI as an important functional food with potential benefits in ameliorating deleterious conditions seen in PD.