Chrysosplenol d, a Flavonol from, Induces ERK1/2-Mediated Apoptosis in Triple Negative Human Breast Cancer Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 8 ;21(11). Epub 2020 Jun 8. PMID: 32521698
Sophia J Lang
Triple negative human breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive cancer subtype with poor prognosis. Besides the better-known artemisinin,L. contains numerous active compounds not well-studied yet. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-MS) was used for the analysis of the most abundant compounds of anextract exhibiting toxicity to MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells. Artemisinin, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, arteannuic acid were not toxic to any of the cancer cell lines tested. The flavonols chrysosplenol d and casticin selectively inhibited the viability of the TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231, CAL-51, CAL-148, as well as MCF7, A549, MIA PaCa-2, and PC-3. PC-3 prostate cancer cells exhibiting high basal protein kinase B (AKT) and no ERK1/2 activation were relatively resistant, whereas MDA-MB-231 cells with high basal ERK1/2 and low AKT activity were more sensitive to chrysosplenol d treatment. In vivo, chrysosplenol d and casticin inhibited MDA-MB-231 tumor growth on chick chorioallantoic membranes. Both compounds induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and apoptosis. Chrysosplenol d activated ERK1/2, but not other kinases tested, increased cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced autophagy in MDA-MB-231 cells. Lysosomal aberrations and toxicity could be antagonized by ERK1/2 inhibition. Theflavonols chrysosplenol d and casticin merit exploration as potential anticancer therapeutics.