Coffee extract has NF-E2-Related Factor-2 (Nrf2) activating properties. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Effect of Coffee Combining Green Coffee Bean Constituents with Typical Roasting Products on the Nrf2/ARE Pathway in Vitro and in Vivo.
J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Sep 26 ;60(38):9631-41. Epub 2012 Sep 14. PMID: 22946519
Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 38, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
This study investigated Nrf2-activating properties of a coffee blend combining raw coffee bean constituents with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CGA) as a lead component with typical roasting products such as N-methylpyridinium (NMP). In cell culture (HT29) the respective coffee extract (CN-CE) increased nuclear Nrf2 translocation and enhanced the transcription of ARE-dependent genes as exemplified for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)A1, reflected in the protein level by an increase in GST enzyme activity. In a pilot human intervention study (29 healthy volunteers), daily consumption of 750 mL of CN-coffee for 4 weeks increased Nrf2 transcription in peripheral blood lymphocytes on average. However, the transcriptional response pattern of Nrf2/ARE-dependent genes showed substantial interindividual variations. The presence of SNPs in the Nrf2-promoter, reported recently, as well as the detection of GSTT1*0 (null) genotypes in the study collective strengthens the hypothesis that coffee acts as a modulator of Nrf2-dependent gene response in humans, but genetic polymorphisms play an important role in the individual response pattern.