A combination of caffeine, arginine, soy isoflavones, and L-carnitine enhances both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells in vitro and in KK mice in vivo.
J Nutr. 2007 Oct;137(10):2252-7. PMID: 17885007
To develop an anti-obesity agent containing dietary components, we focused on the mechanisms that enhance both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Caffeine and arginine (CA), a nonselective adenosine-receptor antagonist and an inducer of lipolytic hormone, respectively, were used to stimulate lipolysis. Soy isoflavones and L-carnitine (SL), stimulators of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A and a cofactor for beta-oxidation of fatty acids, respectively, were used to enhance fatty acid oxidation. Effects of a combination of CA and SL (CASL) on lipid metabolism were studied in vitro and in vivo. During 3T3-L1 differentiation, lipid accumulation was significantly lower in cells treated with CASL (50 micromol/L, 1 mmol/L, 1 micromol/L, and 1 mmol/L, respectively) compared with each alone. Lipolysis was also significantly greater in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with CASL (50 micromol/L, 1 mmol/L, 10 micromol/L and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively) compared with each alone. In addition, treatment with higher concentrations of CASL (2 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, 10 micromol/L, and 1 mmol/L, respectively) significantly enhanced beta-oxidation in HepG2 cells. The effects of CASL-containing diets (250 mg, 6 g, 200 mg, and 1.5 g/kg diet, respectively) were studied in vivo. When KK mice were food deprived for 48 h and subsequently refed a fat-free diet for 72 h, hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation was significantly lower in mice fed CASL compared with the control mice. In addition, after obese KK mice were fed a low-fat diet for 2 wk, adipose tissue weights were significantly lower in those fed CASL, but not CA or SL alone, compared with the control mice. Plasma and liver TG levels were also lower in mice fed CASL than in the control mice. These results suggest that CASL is effective for controlling obesity.