Alleviation of Cardiac Damage by Dietary Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Seeds is Potentiated by Onion (Allium cepa) in Experimental Diabetic Rats via Blocking Renin-Angiotensin System.
Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1. PMID: 29094243
Seetur R Pradeep
Hyperglycemia is one of the metabolic and homeostatic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients by increased oxidative stress. We have recently reported amelioration of oxidative stress in cardiac tissue by dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The mechanistic aspects of the cardio-protective influence of dietary fenugreek seeds (10%) and onion (3% powder) both individually and in combination on hyperglycemia-mediated cardiac damage was further investigated in this study on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cardio-protective influence of these dietary spices was evidenced by their blocking potential on renin-angiotensin system. This might be the consequence of reduced activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1) in cardiac tissue. The combination produced an additive effect on ACE and AT1 protein and mRNA expressions. Increased expression of type IV collagen, fibronectin, Bax, 4-hydroxynonenal, iNOS and metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrate/nitrite) along with disturbed PUFA-to-SFA ratio and activities of cardiac marker enzymes in blood confirmed the myocardial damage. Dietary fenugreek seed, onion and fenugreek + onion were found to ameliorate these pathological changes in the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effect being higher with the combination sometime amounting to additive (iNOS expression) or even a synergistic (cardiac Bax and type IV collagen expression and circulatory marker enzymes) indiabetic rats. Thus, the results of present investigation suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and onion offers higher beneficial influence in ameliorating cardiac damage accompanying diabetes.