Suppression of glomerular damage and apoptosis and biomarkers of acute kidney injury induced by acetaminophen toxicity using a combination of resveratrol and quercetin.
Drug Chem Toxicol. 2020 Feb 3:1-7. Epub 2020 Feb 3. PMID: 32013615
Acute renal failure induced by a toxic dose of acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol, or APAP) is common in both humans and experimental animal models. Glomerular ultrastructural alterations induced by APAP overdose associated with the suppression of biomarkers of kidney injury have not been investigated before. Also, we investigated whether the combined polyphenolic antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, resveratrol (RES) and quercetin (QUR) can protect against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats either received a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg) before being sacrificed after 24 hours or were pretreated for 7 days with combined doses of RES (30 mg/kg) and QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP and then sacrificed 24 hours post APAP ingestion. APAP significantly ( < 0.05) increased blood levels of urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which were effectively reduced by RES + QUR. In addition, APAP overdose induced the tissue expression of the apoptotic biomarker, p53, and caused profound kidney damage as demonstrated by substantial alterations to the glomerular basement membrane, podocytes, endothelial cells, widening of Bowman's space, and vacuolation of the cells lining the parietal layer, which were substantially protected by RES + QUR. Furthermore, a significant ( < 0.0001) positive correlation was observed between either glomerular basement membrane or podocyte foot processes and these parameters, urea, creatinine, MDA, and TNF-α. Thus, we conclude that APAP induces alterations to the glomerulus ultrastructure, which is protected by resveratrol plus quercetin, which also reduces blood levels of urea and creatinine, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation.