Rutin increases the cytotoxicity of temozolomide in glioblastoma via autophagy inhibition.
J Neurooncol. 2017 Mar 14. Epub 2017 Mar 14. PMID: 28293765
The chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Rutin, a citrus flavonoid ecglycoside found in edible plants, has neuroprotective and anticancer activities. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the underlying mechanisms of rutin used in combination with TMZ in GBM. In vitro cell viability assay demonstrated that rutin alone had generally low cytotoxic effect, but it enhanced the efficacy of TMZ in a dose-dependent manner. Subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft studies also showed that tumor volumes were significantly lower in mice receiving combined TMZ/Rutin treatment as compared to TMZ or rutin alone treatment. Moreover, immunoblotting analysis showed that TMZ activated JNK activity to induce protective response autophagy, which was blocked by rutin, resulting in decreased autophagy and increased apoptosis, suggesting that rutin enhances TMZ efficacy both in vitro and in vivo via inhibiting JNK-mediated autophagy in GBM. The combination rutin with TMZ may be a potentially useful therapeutic approach for GBM patient.